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Harmless and high effective broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent——guanidine compounds

2017-02-20 来源:亚科官网
20 February 2017
  Guanidine is a colorless hygroscopic organic strong base, generally in the state of its salt, such as guanidine hydrochloride, guanidine nitrate, guanidine carbonate and so on. Guanidine antibacterial agent refers to the compounds containing guanidine group in structure, because of its strong alkaline, high stability, good biological activity and other characteristics, it is widely used in medicine, industry and agriculture, daily necessities and so on. As a non-toxic and efficient broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents, guanidine compounds gradually aroused people's attention. This article will introduce its mechanism and application field in brief.
Sterilization mechanism of guanidine compounds
  The death of bacteria is mainly divided into "contact death" and "bacterial lysosome" death: when the negatively charged bacteria contacts will be attracted to the cations, which bind the activities of bacteria, inhibit its respiratory function, which is called “contact death"; In addition, the role of electric field gravitational force, the cell wall and cell membrane will be deformation caused by the uneven negative charge distribution, the physical rupture will happens, so that intracellular water, protein exude in vitro, which is called "bacterial lysosome" death. Guanidine compounds have a very high activity, they are soluble in water with a positive charge, and easy to adsorb on the surface of negatively charged microorganisms, and can penetrate into the micro-organisms, destruction of microbial cell structure and energy metabolism, so that bacteria and viruses lose their activity。
Application of guanidine compounds
  Guanidine compounds in the application of antimicrobial agents is very broad, generally include the following aspects:
Medical field
  Guanidine compounds are part of the arginine residue, which plays an important role in the bioactive proteins and peptides. Most of the guanidine compounds isolated from the natural products have physiological activities such as antiviral, anti-tumor, anti AIDS and so on. At present, guanidine compounds are mainly divided into five categories: the first class of antihypertensive drugs, mainly through the sympathetic nerve suppression directly or indirectly affect the heart and blood vessels and play a role in antihypertensive, representative drugs are guanethidine; The second category of hypoglycemic agents, by increasing the organization's anaerobic glycolysis, and promote tissue uptake of glucose, increase the body's use of glucose to lower blood sugar, representative of the drugs are dimethyl guanidine hydrochloride, Phenformin hydrochloride; the third category is the antiviral drugs, these compounds mainly worked by inhibiting the synthesis of viral DNA or protein antiviral effect, representative of the drug are aplovir, puberubir; The fourth category is anticancer drugs, it worked to form a stable inclusion complex through the selective inclusion of phosphotyrosine, so as to achieve the effect of preventing cancer cell growth, representing drug is guanidine modified cyclodextrin; the fifth category is nutrition agent represented with creatine and its derivatives, it has an important role in the promotion of protein synthesis, increase the energy of the body.
Agriculture
  Alkyl-guanidine has both antibacterial and bactericidal activity and inhibits microbes that cause gray fungi and leaf spots. guazatine acetate is a new broad-spectrum fungicide, which has a high growth inhibition on the main fungi of agriculture and horticulture, mainly for the prevention and control of cereal seeds and citrus storage preservative; long chain alkyl guanidine used to eliminate crops and animal pathogens and hairworm bacteria is very effective; Substituted nitrosoguanidine, alkyl, carboxyguanidine, etc. are found to have a certain antibacterial properties; and it is found that the guanidine compound substituted with a plurality of groups can also be used as an intermediate for preparing a plant protecting agent.
Industrial field
  Anti-bacterial paper: paper products is the indispensable products in life, paper fibers can absorb a lot of micro-organisms, if the temperature is appropriate, it will quickly reproduce, and then harm the human body. In order to prevent the a variety of infectious diseases caused by the spread of harmful bacteria and cross-infection, it is great significance to research and development of multi-functional and efficient antibacterial performance paper, scientists have developed a chitosan-guanidine hydrochloride antibacterial paper. Chitosan is a kind of natural antibacterial material extracted from the shell of marine crustacean, which has the advantages of good safety, but it is less heat-resistant, effective time is not long, the application range is narrow, and guanidine hydrochloride has strong alkaline, high stability, good biological activity and good antibacterial properties. multi-functional antibacterial effect of nano-antibacterial agents brought chitosan and guanidine hydrochloride into play at the same time.
  Textiles: A solution of the guanidine polymer in a certain concentration is used to impregnate the surgical clothing, sheets, hosiery, wipes and the like. Over the years, people have been trying to use guanidine antibacterial agent directly to obtain antibacterial fiber to meet a wider range of needs. The use of guanidine compounds good thermal stability and antibacterial properties, and blending spinning with polymers, can be prepared long-lasting anti-bacterial textiles, to meet people's requirements for clothing on the health and comfort, and the acute toxicity is low, so guanidine salt antibacterial agent has a great potential for development.
  Guanidine is an important organic compound with important application value and good biological activity. It is widely used in medicine, pesticide and chemical industry. In recent years, with the progress of science and technology, the development of guanidine compounds receives more and more people's attention, its application will be more extensive in the future.
Edited by the Editorial Office of Suzhou Yacoo Science Co., Ltd.